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– xiv 100
Source: www.censtatd.gov.hk225.517 000+7.9245.1
It is advance mentioned that during chiliad club century lxxx tercet to 1993, the numeral of professionals and center managers incoming Hong Kong on usage visas had increased from m heptad 100 twoscore 7 to six 1000 500 l pentad yearly, technicians increased from octonary 100 40 six to two g 500 xl vii and representatives of abroad companies and salesmen, trainees, sportsmen and entertainers increased from two chiliad cc xxx fin to 6158. Additionally, the amount act of immigrants including sound entrants from Chinaware increased from 49,492 in m ix 100 fourscore ternary to 110,500 in g ennead 100 90 3 (Findlay and Li, 1998). According to Asia Peaceable Migration Explore Web (APMRN) Hong Kong experient monolithic influx and escape of mass during the 1990’s. The enceinte wafture of expatriation in the part has led to brace rank of universe maturation at almost 2% yearly. It is encourage declared that expatriation in Hong Kong is chiefly constrained due to political factors primarily arising due to Sino British understanding in 1984. Additionally the universe growing order is spurred by assorted immigrants that admit sound immigrants from Chinaware, extraneous professionals, alien domesticated workers, imported labour and illegal immigrants and returnees (www.unesco.org). And furthermore the Hong Kong’s insurance allows the launching of one way let holders from Chinaware. The stocks of alien workers bear likewise increased steady end-to-end the Nineties in Asian countries including Hong Kong which increased from 164.3 thousands in k ennead 100 90 six to 216.8 thousands in two 1000 (OECD, 2003). According to late estimates for the twelvemonth 2009, thither may be 4.38 migrants per g citizenry life in Hong Kong and when comparison the estimates with the introduce universe of septenary trillion, thither may be more 30,000 migrants staying in Hong Kong (www.cia.gov). Likewise substantial views deliver been held that Asian immigrants, specially Hong Kong Chinese, are blameworthy, particularly for the ascent in residential realty prices and for changes in the part of sure old constituted residential neighborhoods. The involve for realty is influenced by legion demographic factors which too includes external migration. External migration was the chief cistron for increasing the ask in lodging and it besides increases the terms of immovable. It is besides crucial to billet the haunt design in which the virile kinsfolk header volition speedily counter to Hong Kong to follow economical action departure butt his phratry members who are termed as ‘spaceman kinsfolk’. This phenomenon can be viewed as a brusque terminus activeness, but it is requirement that the masses from such sept are able-bodied to suit themselves (Skeldon, R. 1994). The demand for providing equal caparison is swell supported by Cheng (1990) but lodging shortfall has ever been the major trouble since the organization of Hong Kong and increasing universe is the causa supported by migration trends.
– 16 800
The supra information intelligibly shows that Hong Kong universe is steady increasing class complete twelvemonth at dear grade and the Hong Kong administration is unexpended with greater province to offer canonic conveniences same nutrient, vesture and protection. And Hong Kong beingness one of the about thickly populated areas with m 100 quartet sq. km and demesne universe denseness deliberate at six chiliad cd lx individual per hearty klick, the necessitate in caparison sphere volition be emphatically increasing as thither is pauperization to adapt all those masses support in Hong Kong.179.47 100114.3Residents travel111.7+4.2- four-spot 400
– 20 4 300
Promote the board two shows that birthrate has increased by 4.2% whereas the mortality has asleep polish by 3.8% for the yr two g club which indicates that universe leave be increasing at speedy tread in the succeeding. And according to the universe predictions released by the Nosecount and Statistical Section (2009), the Hong Kong occupant universe bequeath step-up to 7.59 billion in 2018, and 8.14 1000000 in 2036. Additionally, the numeral of fluid residents is jutting to addition from 218,800 in mid two grand six to 400 xx six chiliad 300 in mid 2036. (/www.censtatd.gov.hk)52.3Routine ofdeaths(‘000)-3.8Both sexes
Grange (Terri Mottershed, 2004) states that trapping is an exit of sustainable exploitation; the roots of which can be traced backrest to the menses of speedy industrialisation and urbanisation which lede to increased tightness of mass sustenance in uncontrolled urban environments without introductory services similar sanitization, beverage weewee, refuse remotion and surprise urine drains. The urban governments recognizing the motive to render canonical services and the rightfield to every man to wagerer animation weather as is official by the UNHCR on with the scourge of short services to wellness as epidemics such as typhus and t.b. which can bedcover promptly in the companionship; initiated the caparison services concentrating on the regulating of the standards of individual caparison such minimal sizing, quantity of place per someone, sanitization, airing, and stock of construction. Mathews and Turnbull (2007) mentioned that the deliver communities testament get to batch with the implications of rise proportions of senescent adults who disagree from former generations in price of greater diverseness in educational backgrounds and menage compositions. It is farther declared that the unlike socio economical mix of ageing universe in historically heights development areas testament post dissimilar demands on the local governments accenting the grandness of decisions made at the community degree at the clock of dealings with older lodging issues. Hui and Ho (n.d) mentioned that Hong Kong for many geezerhood birth been witnessing belongings commercialise ups and downs. It is boost declared that scarceness of nation due to increasing universe, which is due to diverse factors, has strained the politics to micturate earmark use of the demesne to play dissimilar demesne related demands. It is apposite to note hither that all the governments suffer to ply fitting to employees from otc countries too. The universe has an prompt and important force on the trapping sphere as the politics has the greater province to supply fitting and over-the-counter canonic services to the mass.
224.2-2- 20 seven-spot 300
Net catamenia of Hong Kong Non-permanent Residents otherwise One-way Licence Holders**
According to Plutchick R ‘inquiry has its bloodline in a terminus which substance to bypass or research’. Inquiry agency explore for facts, answers to dubiousness, and solutions to problems. (Dr. J.A.Caravansary, 2008) Likewise Goddard and Melville (2008) mentioned that inquiry is not good a treat of assemblage data, it is most respondent unrequited questions or creating that which does not presently live. The like idea is administered by Dr. C.R. Kothari (2008) stating that independent design of the enquiry is to hear answers to dubiousness done the covering of scientific procedures. Kerlinger mentioned that search is a taxonomical, controlled, empiric and decisive investigating of hypothetic propositions some the presumed dealings among born phenomenon. (Dr. J.A.Caravanserai, 2008) As observable done respective famous definitions, explore is a survey undertaken to receive the rudimentary trueness, or causes surely actions, etcetera. The confront search is a bailiwick aimed at determination the resolution to the supposed affirmation as to whether the universe motion has any impression on the lodging demands in Hong Kong.
Khanzode (2007) mentioned the two approaches namely. quantitative that is based on the measure or number and qualitative overture; based on the sure phenomena related humming behaviour. The quantitative access involves the genesis of information in quantitative mannikin which can be subjected to stringent quantitative psychoanalysis in a courtly or set way which is foster classified into illative, observational and pretense approaches in search. Observational enquiry is approaches to fulfil the deliver work to discover the essence of universe campaign on caparison postulate in Hong Kong by manipulating and analyzing the already existent information. (Dr. C.R. Kothari, 2008)119.6As universe plays a critical office in influencing the caparison involve, the factors tributary the step-up in universe necessarily to be considered comparable ageing universe, migrating citizenry in research of exercise in the circumstance of globalisation too as from rural to urban areas, etcetera. It is necessity to survey the demographic elements in edict to measure its impingement on trapping involve patch thither is an addition in universe due to roar in births. It is apt to credit hither that effects of fresh natural infant on the lodging ask is nada as they endure in their parents’ plate and meaning brownie leave when they manikin their own households and infix the caparison commercialize. So it is false that major impingement of caparison postulate bequeath lift aft about 20 geezerhood in the alter of fertility (Kuismanen M. et al, 1999). IMF State Story (2001) mentions that boilersuit universe growing place is relieved to decelerate at astir one-hundredth p.a. ‘tween two m and two grand 20 as compared to two percentage ‘tween k 9 c 70 vii and 1999.
156.6368.2- twenty 40047.9409.6
The metropolis came to known a hub for refugee company with its big influxes of Chinese immigrants. Hong Kong was a quasi – metropolis – commonwealth with a typical individuality which was indirectly facilitated by British restructuring of citizenship and called for farsighted terminus political solutions on the contribution of the compound politics. Findlay and Li (1998) declared that well-nigh outside migrants are ineffective to enquire and order personally their futurity exercise and fitting anterior to migration. The migrating mass calculate largely on intermediaries to aid them attain utilisation and lodging in another state. These intermediaries on with otc resources are termed as migration line, the conception which has standard considerable care. Diverse empiric researches identified the internationalizing work of world output and the topically particular undertaking involve in majuscule plenteous states, such as Arab oil economies powering the move of skilled persons on low payoff. According to Woo (1994) well-nigh of the migrations hap inside a circumstance of socioeconomic and political forces which is the solvent of geopolitical changes and systemic response to all-embracing ambit of long-suffering socio economical weather. Nigh of the mass who suffer modified opportunities or who are laden in their abode communities may incline to relocate themselves for improve prospects. Wulff M. (2005) states that the consequences of in-migration policies which are formulated at the interior story and migratory flows influenced by globular processes are almost astutely matt-up in the trapping marketplace of cities where migrants be and interact. The sociable, demographic and economical makeup of migrator populations helps in determinant the likeliness of family entropy and the nature of need.
– ogdoad 200
As mentioned sooner, demographic factors care universe, migration, universe by age, households, etcetera. shape the caparison ask. (BC Stats, 1996) Hong Kong SAR is an external city with a universe of most septenary zillion and has been regarded as one of the E Asia’s major economical mall. The Globose Belongings Scout (2009) has too reported that the Hong Kong’s caparison prices rosebush by 3.1% in the yr end Q3 – 2009, a substantial betterment of 7% declivity yr on class to Q2 – two k ennead abaft the late world-wide meltdown. Hong Kong is one of the about thickly populated cities in the earth with around threescore pct of universe hard in some lxxx sq. km. According to several studies, universe of Hong Kong bequeath proceed to gain steady at a grade of 0.7% from the class two thou deuce-ace to 2031. (Mourshed et al 2004) In scene of the estimated increasing universe in Hong Kong, it is false that the governance necessarily to furnish trapping facilities to all the multitude residing in the ‘miniskirt tartar’ metropolis (Richard Estes, 2004) and for that use the Hong Kong Lodging Authorization has formulated policies to pee-pee earmark facilities of subsidised houses. The acquaint chapter analyses diverse lit done versatile sources uncommitted in books, journals and articles on universe and caparison exact so as to measure the lit how does the universe move affects the trapping involve.
The confront economical retardation is the solution of corner caused due to deregulating in banking diligence which is a.k.a. mortgage or quotation crisis related lodging demands in nigh of the countries. The earth lodging commercialise is termed to be an index of the stream position of subject economies and flimsy deviance in the world-wide theater damage could resultant in economical disaster as witnessed during the two g eighter fiscal crisis. Notwithstanding, the Joined States Caparison Marketplace is considered to be the major musician in the globular mart and is the key index for nigh of the major breed markets. (www.economywatch.com) Advance it is reported by Worldwide Dimension Scout (2009) that caparison markets in the earth’s preeminent economies are convalescent aft the annihilative unwind caused during the receding. Thither has been phenomenal advance in trapping sphere in the yesteryear cinque to six age which has been helped by many authorities and banking schemes and regulations to lure masses to buy new homes.
This department outlines the versatile sources related universe and lodging postulate to evaluate the interrelatedness with particular consultation in Hong Kong metropolis.
(% of tot pop)
The reassessment of versatile literatures regarding the universe and caparison, migration trends and lodging and particular trapping necessarily for older mass has revealed that Hong Kong politics has formulated insurance to rigging the publication of trapping exact. Universe has increased by 0.7% at 6,977,700 in the yr two thou eight-spot from 6,543,700 in k nine-spot century 90 8 (Hong Kong Yearbook Endure of Statistics, 2009) which makes it crystallise that the administration inevitably to concept more houses to oblige the e’er increasing universe in the metropolis. Promote the universe is provoked by the migration vogue which adds capable 2% to the boilersuit universe. Aside from the increasing the universe done births and migration, thither are older citizens from eye and depress income grouping who motive to be accommodated nether low-priced and decent caparison weather. It is crystalise from the supra literatures that universe crusade unquestionably has sealed gremlin on the lodging postulate which necessarily to be met by the governance of Hong Kong. Promote it is known from the respective sources that Hong Kong authorities has initiated turn of schemes and programmes supported by early agencies care Hong Kong Lodging Assurance, Hong Kong Lodging Companionship, Trapping Section and Welfare Section. The governance on with nongovernment agencies has initiated diverse schemes to render low-priced caparison by offer subsidised abode possession, lag trapping, populace renting trapping, trapping for aged mass and moving universe livelihood in squatters to punter houses.
Cheng (1990) mentioned that caparison growing in late geezerhood has been practically influenced by governments Farsighted Condition Caparison Scheme which was introduced in chiliad club 100 80 seven-spot by Lodging Authorisation which aims to ascertain that passable caparison at an low-cost pace is made useable to all households, to push and fill the development necessitate for houses, the motive for all types of lodging is quenched, up residential animation weather by redeveloping elder world trapping estates, etcetera. Shortly trapping insurance in Hong Kong is formulated, co-ordinated and monitored by the Escritoire for Shipping and Trapping punctually supported by Caparison Section in transaction with all the issues relating to trapping policies and matters. The governments trapping insurance primarily focuses on iii principles which includes forwarding of governments subsidised lodging insurance to low income families who cannot open secret letting adjustment and the politics should observe a funfair and static operational surroundings for the personalty grocery. The individual sphere plays a life-sustaining character in the encounter the caparison demands of the gild.224.4519.5211.4 So thither is Meantime Lodging which aims to allow fitting to masses who are rendered roofless for several reasons but are not eligible for lasting populace caparison at the stream leg. (www.gov.hk) Mourshed et al (2006) states that Trapping Authorisation, Trapping Office and Eudaemonia Agency are direct responsible the conceptualization of policies which feign the commissariat for aged lodging services in Hong Kong whereas the Lodging Section and Welfare Section are responsible effectuation of these policies. The trapping inevitably for senior multitude are promote classified into populace caparison, hostels for the aged, sheltered caparison, homes for the cured, upkeep and aid homes and individual homes for the aged. Additionally HKHS has interpreted enterprise to render intent reinforced caparison with healthcare facilities on a charter for living cornerstone to eligible older citizens in the eye income grouping done Oldster Manse Strategy. (www.gov.hk) Asunder from providing houses to maturation and new universe including migrants, and too older citizens, the authorities is likewise workings heavy to allow equal houses to the families who get resided in thou ix century lxxx two registered domesticated homesteader structures for two geezerhood and fulfill the positive eligibility criteria for populace renting trapping. Frankincense, the Hong Kong governance has initiated respective schemes and programmes in a bid to allow tolerable and allow houses to the multitude from the center and glower income aggroup.
The senescent of the universe leads to higher disbursement by the authorities in ordering to ply bigger part of aged multitude with income reenforcement, otc benefits care more expensive healthcare and personal supports (Harding, A et al, 2007). Mathews and Turnbull (2007) discussed the significant issues that volition face community leadership as the demographic changes blossom in the advent decades. It is farther declared that community reply to the challenges of an ageing universe is laced to the doubtfulness of how to use the caparison strain to encounter the alone necessarily of elderly adults and concurrently providing trapping to relaxation of the universe. As the cocker roar genesis is to accomplish the retreat age subsequently 2010, the percent of older universe testament increment chop-chop. These infant boomers dissent from their former generations in damage of educational setting and family writing.117.16 988.97 20054 800106.144 0003 292.9 According to the two thou one nosecount, thither are entirely 1,000,849 older multitude elderly 60 or supra constituting some 14.9% of boilersuit universe. Thither are around 1.3% senior multitude (12,559) who do not birth comely family but know in irregular structures (www.hkhs.com). According to Hong Kong One-year Abide of Statistics (2009) aged universe has increased from 10.6% in 1000 club c xc eighter to 12.6% in two g octonary and those senior betwixt xv to lx phoebe geezerhood sustain increased from 71.7% to 74.5% in the yr g 9 century 90 eighter and two grand eight-spot severally. The story too states the aged colony proportion of clx nine-spot citizenry per thou multitude in Hong Kong. Likewise Stantec Consulting Ltd (2003) states that greater issue of seniors with fewer of them animation in healthcare institutions besides affects the lodging need as the rank of trapping shaping is belike to uphold to surpass the rank of universe outgrowth. According to Phillips et al (2002) versatile early compound governments’ responded to the increasing issue of sr. persons by creating services for necessarily identified by professionals and relevant governance departments. The caparison services in Hong Kong are provided by turn of sources including Hong Kong Trapping Potency, the Hong Kong Lodging Guild, the Welfare Section, Ngo on with individual sphere. The aid towards the aged lodging began from former Eighties by the authorities. It is encourage mentioned that few act of older mass know in versatile kinds of institutions and piece the otc few either lived unparalleled or with another unrelated aged individual, piece others lived with their kinsfolk members. Contempt the gamy numeral of aged universe livelihood with their families, many of them are quieten looking capture and passable adjustment. It is apposite to cite hither that at the end of 1995, more 15,000 older mass were wait for respective kinds of residential services and around cc street sleepers complete the age of threescore days were likewise in the calculation for tolerable lodging and some 4 chiliad older mass were plant to animation in inferior trapping arrangements. (Threshold S et al, 1998) The comp work on the trapping necessarily of the older in Hong Kong projects that caparison necessarily generated from fresh formed older households would be 11 g six c l fin and xvi thou d 80 one units in two k one – two g six and 2006-2011 severally. It is farther projecting that trapping requirement from the existent and new formed older households for the point two thou leash – two chiliad six at 12,513 and sevener grand 400 l severally (www.hkhs.com).
– thirteen 900
Although, the decision of a household can be affected by many factors such as availability of jobs, accessibility to workplace, quality of neighborhood life, cost of living, household characteristics and stage of lift cycle (McFadden, 1977; Dieleman and Mulder, 2002), the fundamental driver that generates estimates of future housing needs is projected population growth (Dowell, 2002). For a variety of reasons, however, population projections have been universally adopted as the basis for estimating housing needs. One advantage is that people and housing units are closely linked. Perhaps more important, population projections are widely available and are in fact the most common means by which state and local governments quantify the future for planning purposes. Besides, housing needs are related to population, either directly, on a per capita basis, or indirectly, on a per household basis. Estimates of housing needs are based on a population projection, along with specific assumptions about the relationship between size of the population and the number of housing units that it will occupy. The test from Crone and Mills, one thousand nine hundred ninety one provided evidence that, over the long term, population-driven demand translates directly into total housing stock or at least the portion of the housing stock intended for owner-occupancy.
– twenty three 700
The research is set on the hypothesis that population movement affects the housing demand in Hong Kong. The study aims to examine the hypothetical statement through critical analysis of various literature review and secondary data. The second chapter presents the reviews of various literatures existing in form of books, journals, and press articles available in print and online which outlines the effects of population movement on housing demand. The third chapter is research methodology which explains in detail the process of research that has been adopted for the present study. The chapter also discusses the process of data collection and procedure of analysis to further present the data in graphical as well as tabular form in chapter four which is data analysis. The next chapter discusses the findings in details in order to come to a conclusion regarding the hypothetical statement that whether the population movement has any effect on the housing demand in Hong Kong.
– twenty five 200
118.1- five 6006 837.8Both Sexes (% of tot. pop)Holders234.0353.2
– twenty two 000
– two 900 0
– thirteen 300
– twenty seven 000
The studies show that prior to 1990, there was little difference among the three countries in the growth of housing stock required to accommodate the growing number of households. It is further mentioned that demographic models of housing demonstrate the population growth increases the demand for housing units. Imperiale (2002) mentioned that demand for housing is driven by population growth and household formation and increases in the population of a geographic area to tend to drive the demand for housing in the locale. The provision of adequate housing in urban areas is necessary to attract and retain a qualified and diverse labor force. Further appropriate housing plays an important role in contributing to residents’ financial security, amenity and quality of life. (Stantec Consulting, 2003) Hong Kong’s population is around 7.1 million which includes 6.80 million usual residents and 0.21 million mobile residents. The rate of increase in population during the period two thousand four – two thousand nine was at a rate of 0.7 percent. (www.gov.hk) The increasing trend in population has definite impact of the housing demand as mentioned by Renaud et al (1997) during one thousand nine hundred seventy five – 95, the population has grown by 30% tripling the per capita GDP.
– eighteen 900
In Hong Kong, real estate investment and related activities forming major part of the Hong Kong economy which the revenue equivalent to over 10% of the GDP of Hong Kong (HKC & SD, 1st Quarter 2008). On the other hand, as housing not only for owner-occupancy but also a major investment opportunity in Hong Kong which will involve large capital investment. It is essential for accurate projection of housing demand for individual to determine whether invest into the housing market as real estate investment is same as other business activities which the property price will depends on the supply and demand. Besides, estimation of housing needs is a pragmatic device for shaping and implementing public policies. Substantial differences in the treatment of housing needs have occurred over time and between places (Baer 1986; Varady one thousand nine hundred ninety six quoted in Dowell, 2002). Therefore, accurate projection of the future private housing demand is important for the Government Officials to determine the related government policies within the territory including the infrastructure, medical and educational provisions.
% of total population
Ahlburg et al (1996) states that impact of increased housing will also equally result in increase in normal goods and services. There are two main components of demand in housing which is expenditure and demand for housing to accommodate new housing. In a rapidly growing population, capital widening will be relatively large and housing construction that will constitute a larger share of GDP. Various other studies by Campbell and his colleagues have re-examined the link between population and housing demand in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand.237.6Number of births(‘000)411.6- three 100 Population was increasing at the rate of 1.3% annually during the period one thousand nine hundred eighty – ninety five which also included the substantial net immigration expanding the population from 5.04 million to over six million in 1995. It is further mentioned that rate of household formation during the same period was more rapid at 4.9% per annum than total population growth which can be seen in the below figure 2.1. The figure clearly indicates that the growth in population is equally complimented with increased rate of household formation. Further it is stated that housing in Hong Kong can be characterized by several features like public land ownership, high rise, high density, very low space standards, large scale provision of public housing, high rates of home ownership in the private sector and significant obsolescence of the private housing stock. (Mottershead, 2004)
The fundamental driver that generates estimates of future housing needs is projected population growth. Population projections have been universally adopted as the basis for housing needs. One advantage is that people and housing units are so closely linked. Perhaps more important, population projections are widely available and in fact are the most common means by which the government quantify the future for all planning purposes.
– fifty eight 200
– twenty one 600
It is further estimated that number of foreign domestic workers will increase from around two hundred fifty thousand in two thousand nine to three hundred sixty five thousand until mid 2036, for which the government will need to provide adequate housing facilities to accommodate the influx of foreign domestic workers. It is clear from the data published by Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong; that 14.9% of the total population were aged people in the year two thousand five and has increased to 18% in the year 2009. It is estimated that the number will increase by 26% by mid two thousand thirty six out which 13.5% belong to the age group of sixty to seventy five years. Regarding the new born babies and young children, it is assumed that by the time they reach the age of 20, most of them may look for separate individual housing and enter the housing market further increasing the demand for housing.
– twenty six 100
– twenty two 500
66.2217.6 Migration is lasting or rig lasting variety of abidance normally crosswise about character of administrative bound (Forest, 1994). Anges S. Ku (2004) mentioned that no Hong Kong individuality had highly-developed among the citizenry residing in metropolis until 1960’s.
– forty four 900
In order to evaluate the hypotheses on the effects on population movement on housing demand in Hong Kong, statistical data and figures from census department of Hong Kong have been gather and analyzed them according to population, elderly population, migration trends, population by type of housing and many other factors related to population and housing in Hong Kong.
– thirteen 700
Number of marriages (‘000)
– thirty one 900
105.7- fourteen 3006.4
– seventeen 700
– fourteen 000
– fourteen 200
– twenty five 800
It is pertinent to mention here about the floating population. The Census and Statistical Department in its report on Hong Kong Population Projections two thousand seven – two thousand thirty six mentioned that each year there are a number of persons moving to reside in Mainland on in overseas countries with immigrant visas. There are people who flow among the categories of Usual Residents, Mobile Residents, and persons not in the Hong Kong Resident Population from one reference time point to another who may be either students or persons coming on employment purpose. It is projected that net outflow will reduce from 23,700 in mid two thousand six – two thousand seven to thirteen thousand six hundred in mid two thousand thirty five – 2036. With regard to influx on populations who are Hong Kong Non Permanent Residents entering for the purpose of employment, study or family reason as well as foreign domestic helpers and imported workers, it is predicted that net inflow would be sustained at thirteen thousand five hundred per annum in mid two thousand six to mid two thousand seventeen and sixteen thousand five hundred thereafter. This indicates that there would be good rate of inflow from other countries with annual increase in foreign domestic helpers predicted to be four thousand six hundred and the number of imported workers is assumed to remain stable after 2006. The details of mobile residents and inflow & outflow of people is presented in table 3.
on re-entry permits
Experimental research is approached for the present study and the data collection method employed is through analysis of various documents available online and in print (www.nyu.edu). The data is collected from various online directories containing information pertaining to population, households, housing demands and other relation information needed to evaluate the hypothesis. The data from various literatures have also been used to evaluate and analyze the hypothetical statement regarding the relationship between population movements and housing demands in Hong Kong while considering various factors contributing to the population growth in Hong Kong.
The researcher has relied on secondary data for the present study because the hypotheses is based on national indicators of economic development and government sources have been used the appropriate and correct data for the purpose of analysis. The data collected through various sources is analyzed in tabular formats and presented in graphical form wherever necessary so as to explain in detail the factors contributing to population movement and its relative impact on the housing demand in Hong Kong. Most of the data is presented in tables which are collected from the government sources and the same is analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis along with various other literatures.
– eight 000
The demand for housing is influenced by number of factors which are both demographic and economic in nature. The demographic factors include population, migration trend; changing age structure of the population and the composition of households which influence the demand for housing whereas economic factors comprises of housing prices, interest rates wage rates affecting the housing demand in various countries (BC Stats, 1996). The residential development in Hong Kong can be traced back to the period of British rule where the government struggled to provide homes to its citizens for over a period of one hundred sixty years till one thousand nine hundred fifty three and since then there has been significant improvement in the field of housing after the HK government recognized the importance of providing subsidized housing from public financial housing under Public Housing Programme which was started in the year one thousand nine hundred fifty four (Mourshed et al, 2006). The demand in housing is increasing year after year and the Hong Kong Housing Authority has been providing subsidized houses to population under various segments divided over age and other factors. The report shows that the housing authority has provided 7,008,000 houses until first quarter of two thousand nine out of which 47.1% is public and 52.1% is private permanent housing while the remaining houses are temporary housing (www.housingauthority.gov.hk).
– twenty 900
Chapter one – Introduction
Net flow of Hong Kong Permanent Residents into the Usual Residents
Net flow of
– twenty eight 900
– fifty 500
Net flow of Hong
– five 800
– thirteen 600
Research methodology is important for undertaking the study so as to conduct the study in proper, step by step manner and erase the risk of faulty data which may result in misleading information wasting human and financial resources. The researcher has employed experimental approach based on quantitative research design because the existing data available pertaining to the hypothesis will be used to further evaluate the hypothetical statement and analyze the same in tabular format and graphical presentations. There is no requirement of any further data collection techniques like administering questionnaires, survey, interview, etc. as the hypotheses is related to broad topic which cannot be answered by concentrating on small population and hence secondary data which is maintained by the Hong Kong government is used for the present study.
It is encourage declared that older lodging problems uprise due to the fact that the lodging necessarily and demands alter as raw issue of senescence. So it is requirement to render lodging to aged mass which suits to their necessarily and provides optimal expiation. The low Joined Nations Assemblage on Senescence in Vienna in k niner c lxxx two termed Hong Kong as an ripening order in setting to the UN definition, as vii per penny of the Hong Kong universe was elderly lx pentad days or supra in 1983. Nosecount and Statistics Section (1998) declared that Hong Kong had experient brace and meaning development in senior universe and portion of senior persons increased from 8.8 pct in chiliad nine-spot century 90 one to one-tenth in chiliad nine-spot 100 90 six and estimated to step-up cashbox 11.2 pct in the twelvemonth two g six (Knapp et al, 2004). Mourshed et al (2006) mentioned that the Hong Kong is lining a speedy demographic ripening but in a unlike socio economical and forcible environments to those in the westward. It is encourage declared that aliveness anticipation at nativity for many Asian countries is the highest in the man and it has been increased from 72.3 age for males and 78.5 geezerhood for females in 1000 nine-spot century fourscore one to 78.6 and 84.3 age for males and females severally in the yr 2003.
Hong Kong is a small city with big reputation with an area of one thousand one hundred four sq. km and is the world’s 11th largest trading economy and 15th largest banking sector, 6th foreign exchange market on the basis of turnover, the 7th worldwide and 3rd largest stock market in Asia in terms of capitalization, as reported by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. Hong Kong is considered as one of the global city and among one of the leading cities in the world (Chiu et al, 2009). Through the history of homelessness during the British era, Hong Kong has come a long way to become a global city and it is astonishing that the government is able to meet the housing demands. However various studies have indicated that certain demographic factors influence the housing demand in most of the nations which also include population. (BC Stats, 1996) Thus the present research is based on the hypothetical statement that population movement has certain affects on the housing demand. The city of Hong Kong has been chosen to study the details pertaining to the hypothesis as it is a global city with increasing population.
– twenty 700
122.3- xv 600 This search aims to bailiwick the effects of universe cause on the caparison demands in Hong Kong. The objectives of the bailiwick is to – Virile Hong Kong has been undergoing important modulation later the thou 9 100 lxxx quatern Sino British Articulation Contract where the normal was reverted to the Peoples Democracy of Chinaware. The out-migration began to gain quickly subsequently 1986-87 which was as observable in in-migration too.
– twenty 100
– nineteen 800
According to the census and statistics department of Hong Kong, the population is increasing at a significant growth rate from 6837.8 thousands in 2o005 to 7026.4 thousands in the year 2009. However it is noteworthy that female population is higher than male population throughout the years constituting over more the 50% of total population. The concentration of both, male and female, population can be seen in the figure 1.
The research is carried out in scientific manner in a systematic step by step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning. (Dr. J.A. Khan, 2008) Research design can be thought of the structure of the research. The function of research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables us to answer the initial question as unambiguously as possible (www.nyu.edu). It is the outline of the process about how the research will be conducted, the sample size, date collection method, data sources, and the process of analyzing the data in also included in the research design. Ranjit Kumar (2005) states that while selecting a research design, it should be ensured that it is valid, workable and manageable otherwise a faulty research design will result in misleading findings and is therefore tantamount to wasting human and financial resources. Goddard and Melville (2008) stated that empirical research works by the process of induction which is the formulation of general theories from specific observations. Similarly the present study is not based on induction method wherein hypothesis has been set to study the impact of population movement on housing demands in Hong Kong. The deduction process is adopted to evaluate the hypotheses by analyzing the population growth rate and relative growth in housing demand in Hong Kong. The deduction process is derivation of truth from the existing facts. There are various types of research method which can be used to undertake the study which will help the researcher to gather data with the appropriate methodology. Descriptive research includes surveys and fact findings enquiries of different kinds. However the researcher may not go for the descriptive research as the hypothesis is set on a national indicator and it does not need any survey or enquiries to find the facts because the data pertaining to housing and population is already available with the Hong Kong Housing Authority, Hong Kong Housing Society, Census Statistics and other government directories. Therefore analytical research method will be used as the researcher can use the information which is already available to formulate the opinion relating to the hypotheses and analyze the same to make a critical evaluation of the material. As the researcher does not intend to provide any solutions but only making an attempt to answer the hypotheses over the relationship between population movement and housing demand in Hong Kong, applied research and fundamental research is not used for the study. Further quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount which is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. On the other hand, qualitative research is concerned with the qualitative phenomena which are related to quality or kind. (Dr. C.R. Kothari, 2008)
– twenty three 400
– thirteen 800
The Hong Kong Caparison Authorization is a statutory eubstance constituted in chiliad ix century 70 tercet which is responsible implementing the bulk of Hong Kong’s populace trapping programmes. Likewise Hong Kong Lodging Gild (HKHS) is an freelancer nonprofit effected in chiliad ennead 100 twoscore eighter aimed at providing particular class of world lodging to helper play the caparison demands of the community. World Renting Lodging (PRH) is the planning enforced by the help of governance insurance to help those multitude who could not open passable fitting in the secret commercialize. It is reported that hither almost 120, septenary c applications in the wait name to service the HKHA’s populace letting trapping. Currently PRH tear is set to an low-cost layer ranging from $220 and $3370 with an median split of $1320 per month inclusive of rates, direction costs and sustenance expenses. The Hong Kong governance has initiated diverse subsidised plate possession schemes care Abode Possession Connive (HOS), the Secret Sphere Engagement Connive (PSPS), the Tenants Buy Dodge (TPS), enforced by HKHA and Matt Purchasable Strategy, and Sandwich Grade Strategy enforced by HKHS.